Link to ALIA


The Conference Organising Committee and the Programme Sub-Committee are working hard to develop a stimulating, exciting and well-balanced programme of plenary sessions, panels and workshops centering around different themes in each session; create, lead, innovate, connect and knowledge.

Please click here for a printable version of the programme and remember to check out the Workshops and Satellite Events and Library Tours pages.

Conference papers

Tuesday 19th September

3.30pm Registration Opens
Level 2, Main Foyer
5.30pm - 7.30pm Welcome Function and Opening of the Exhibition
Sponsored by Civica Pty Limited
This is a great opportunity to meet old friends, make new ones and catch up with other delegates and exhibitors before the conference begins. Enjoy some wine, food and some light entertainment while you explore the Trade Exhibition.
6.00pm Registration desk closes

Wednesday 20th September
Theme: Leadership

7.30am Registration
Level 2, Main Foyer
7.30am First Timers Breakfast
Level 2, Room 4
Sponsored by State Library of NSW

Opening Ceremony
Level 2, Auditorium

Welcome to Country
Mort Hansen

Imogen Garner, Conference Chairman

Welcome to Western Australia and Official Opening of the Conference
Governor His Excellency Ken Michael AC

Short address by the ALIA president
Dagmar Schmidmaier AM


Keynote Speaker
Level 2, Auditorium
Josephine Bryant, City Librarian, Toronto Public Library
Chairman: Michelle Brennand

10.25am Introducing...Dr Click

Morning tea in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by Westbooks

ALIA job networking at the ALIA stand
Job seekers and employers - an opportunity to meet face-to-face to find out about job prospects in Australia

11.00am – 12.30pm
Concurrent Sessions


Concurrent 1
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 1,2,3

Chairman: Alan Bundy

Concurrent 2
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 4

Chairman: Eve Woodberry

Concurrent 3
Level 2, Southern Foyer, Room 5

Chairman: Dr Helen Partridge


Future perfect: workforce planning issues in LIS
Dr Gillian Hallam
Queensland University of Technology, QLD

Not the “R” Word! Or A “breath of fresh air” – the impact of organisational restructure at Macquarie University Library
Kathryn Pearson
Macquarie University Library, NSW

A careful blend of general and vocational training Professor Jayarani Raju
Durban University of Technology, South Africa


1001 Australian nights: the importance of librarians telling their own story
Andrew Wright
Andy Wright International Story-Teller, VIC

Tech trials? Top’d and turn’d
Robyn Benjamin
University of Western Sydney, NSW

The missing link? Alumni chapters and the professional development of librarians
Clare Glanville
University of Southern Queensland, QLD

12.00 noon

Recognising the assistants: Workplace competency training in Australia
Judith Field
ACE (Adult Community Education) North Coast, Lismore, NSW

The impact of leadership on library quality: outcome of benchmarking project between ATN libraries
Leanne Levinge
Library Services, Queensland University of Technology, QLD Karen Tang
Quality, Planning & Corporate Services, Curtin University of Technology, WA

Changes to research funding in Australia: impact of the research quality
Dr Gaby Haddow
Humanities, Research Services, Library & Information Service, Curtin University of Technology, WA

12.30pm Lunch in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by CCH Australia Ltd
1.40pm Wake up Session
Level 2, Auditorium
Grant Stone star of ABC TV and Librarian at Murdoch University, Western Australia
Chairman: Judi Willmott
2.00pm Keynote Speaker
Level 2, Auditorium
Dr Dawn Casey, CEO Western Australian Museum
Chairman: Dagmar Schmidmaier AM
2.40pm Launch of CASL Indigenous Policy
Dr Dawn Casey
2.45pm Dr Click
2.50pm Browse the Exhibition and meet some Keynote Speakers

Afternoon tea in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by Westbooks

ALIA job networking at the ALIA stand
Job seekers and employers - an opportunity to meet face-to-face to find out about job prospects in Australia

4.00pm – 5.30pm
Concurrent Sessions


Concurrent 4
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 1,2,3

Chairman: Patricia Walker

Concurrent 5
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 4

Chairman: Imogen Garner

Concurrent 6
Level 2, Southern Foyer, Room 5

Chairman: Cheryl Hamill


Librarians as learning advocates
Chris Kelly
Hume Global Learning Village Library Service, VIC

Demand balancing in interlibrary loan networks
Dr Edmund Balnaves
Prosentient Systems Pty Ltd, NSW

clic@click06: a consortial success story
Cathie Jilovsky
Information Services, CAVAL Collaborative Solutions, VIC
K. Pearson
Resource Access, Macquarie University Library, NSW
J. Wilson
Document Delivery Services, RMIT Library, VIC


Understanding digital inequality in the smart city: a psychological model
Helen Partridge
Queensland University of Technology, QLD

Copyright and new content models
Michael Fraser
Copyright Agency Limited, NSW

The role of partnership libraries in NSW health
Tabitha Merrell
Centre for Rural and Remote Mental HEalth Library, NSW


From stand alone to SWIFT: the story so far
Darren Ryan
Yarra-Melbourne Regional Library Corporation, VIC


The Australian Government Libraries Information Network (AGLIN): our role in connecting government
Debrah Lewis
Library & Extension Services, Australian Bureau of Statistics, ACT

5.30pm ALIA Happy Hour in the Trade Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Catering sponsored by ALIA
6.30pm Close of day one


Swan River Dinner Cruise
On Wednesday night why not get a group together and enjoy an evening cruise along Perth’s famous Swan River? This optional social event is a dinner cruise along the Swan where you will enjoy the enchanting atmosphere of an evening set against the lights of Perth. The fully inclusive price ($89.00 per ticket) includes a seafood entrée, buffet main course, desert, beer, wine and soft drinks.

More information available at

Thursday 21 September
Theme: Knowledge


Meet the Leaders
Level 2, Auditorium

Alex Byrne - President IFLA
Dagmar Schmidmaier AM - President ALIA
Chairman: Sue Hutley, Executive Director ALIA


Ena Noel, Marjorie Cotton, Bess Thomas, ALIA Research Awards

10.25am Dr Click

Morning tea in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by Westbooks

11.00am – 12.30pm
Concurrent Sessions


Concurrent 7
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 1,2,3

Chairman: Viv Barton

Concurrent 8
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 4

Chairman: Barbara Coombes

Concurrent 9
Level 2, Southern Foyer, Room 5

Chairman: Richard Sayers


Kimberley Writers Festival
Anne Devenish
Kununurra Community Library, WA

Client’s information seeking behaviour: an OPAC transaction log
Prof. Markus Hennies
Stuttgart Media University, Germany

Architecture for implementing a sustainable electronic services delivery platform – case study
Nandu Thundatil
State Library of NSW, NSW


RFID and Privacy within Libraries - Myths, Misconceptions and The Future
Alan Butters
Sybis, VIC

What is a library OPAC?
Dr David Wells
Curtin University of Technology, WA

Implementing institutional repositories in Regional Australia
Caroline Ayers
RUBRIC Central Project Team, University of Sourthern Queensland, QLD

12.00 noon

Waver riders:- Eastern Sydney Libraries Cooperative and their HSC support programme
Will Coombe
Reference and Information Services, Waverley Library, NSW

Search challenges as assessment tools: a collaboration between the library and the 21 st Century Information Fluency Project in Illinois
Paula Garrett
Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, Illinois, USA

AIATSIS Library: innovations in indigenous library services
Rod Stroud
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, ACT


Lunch in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by CCH Australia Ltd
President's Lunch

President's Lunch
Level 2, Room 8


Wake up Session
Level 2, Auditorium
New Grads present “Coaches Gold Medal Ceremony”. This is an interactive session with audience members.
Presenters - Chelsea Harper, Kate Davis, Melissa Okely, Linda Papa and Kylie Smith
Chairman: Alison Sutherland


Keynote Speaker
Level 2, Auditorium
Unlocking digital content and throwing away the key: connecting New Zealanders to information important to all aspects of their lives
Penny Carnaby, CEO National Library of New Zealand

Chairman: Phillip Keene

2.40pm Dr Click
2.50pm – 3.30pm
Concurrent Sessions


Concurrent 10
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 1,2,3

Chairman: Maureen Chew

Concurrent 11
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 4

Chairman: Dr Jill Hallam

Concurrent 12
Level 2, Southern Foyer, Room 5

Chairman: Gaby Haddow


A big Ask! Reference, time zones and the art of cooperation
Carmel McInerny,
Reader Services, National Library of Australia, ACT
Libby Fielding
Reader Services, Client Services and Collections, State Library of Queensland, QLD


To unionise or not to unionise the lis sector: the debate now begins in South Africa
Dr Reggie Raju
University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Libraries without librarians are just a room full of books: educating inmate library clerks, for now and for their future
Toni Kennedy
NSW Dept. of Corrective Services, NSW

3.30pm – 3.50pm

Afternoon tea in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by Westbooks
ALIA job networking at the ALIA stand

4.00pm – 5.30pm
Concurrent Sessions


Concurrent 13
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 1,2,3

Chairman: Christine McKenzie

Concurrent 14
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 4

Chairman: Kerry Bedford

Concurrent 15
Level 2, Southern Foyer, Room 5

Chairman: Rachael Browning


Libraries building communities – the next steps, leaps and bounds for a groundbreaking project
Debra Rosenfeldt
Vicnet, State Library of Victoria, VIC

Innovation in a podshell: bringing information literacy into the world of podcasting
Jody Atkinson
Curtin University of Technology Library and Information Services, WA
Sonja Olsen
Curtin University of Technology Library and Information Services, WA

Where are we going and do I need luggage? : the future of reference services in Australian academic libraries
Liz Burke
The University of Western Australia Library, WA


Fleas in the reading room and fiction on the shelves: meeting the readers and librarians of a nineteenth century public library
Peter Thompson
La Trobe University Library, VIC

The teaching librarian: ESL and the Academic Library
Fiona Mariner
University of Adelaide Library, SA

SMS reference: keeping up with your clients!
Sonia Herman
Southbank Institute of Technology, QLD


Decimating Dewey: introducing a bookshop arrangement for shelving the non fiction collection
Sarah Hopkins
Bayside Library Service, VIC

Print v electronic reference sources: implications of an Australian study
Dr Paul Genoni
Curtin University of Technology, WA
Ann Ritchie
Northern Territory Library, NT

5.30 pm Close of day one
7.00pm to midnight

Click06 Gala Dinner
Level 3, Grand Ballroom
Sponsored by 3M Library Systems

Bring along your castanets for the click06 conference dinner in the Grand Ballroom. The dinner will have a Spanish theme, so come along prepared to join in the revelry.

Enjoy a festive evening of fine food and wine, followed by dancing late into the night with music provided by Daren Reid and the Soul City Groove. It will be the social event of the ALIA calendar for 2006 - don't miss out!

Friday 22 September 2006
Theme: Innovation

9.35am Dr Click
Level 2, Auditorium
9.40am Keynote Speaker
Level 2, Auditorium
Neil McClelland OBE Director, National Literacy Trust (UK)
(Independent charity dedicated to building a literate nation)
Chairman: Helen Partridge

Morning tea in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by Westbooks
ALIA job networking at the ALIA stand

11.00am – 1.00pm
Concurrent Sessions


Concurrent 16
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 1,2,3

Chairman: Kerry Smith

Concurrent 17
Level 2, Northern Foyer, Room 4

Chairman: Ann Ritchie

Concurrent 18
Level 2, Southern Foyer, Room 5

Chairman: Anne-Marie Schwirtlich


Standards for RFID systems in Australian libraries – what does it all mean and why should you care?
Alan Butters
Sybis, VIC


Collaboration and communication via wiki: the experience of Curtin University Library and Information Service
Constance Wiebrands
Curtin University of Technology Library and Information Services, WA

A Statewide approach to auditing collections and developing a 2020 blueprint for public libraries in Victoria
Wendy Quihampton
Vicnet, State Library of Victoria, VIC


Emerging technologies changing our service delivery models
Mary Kajewski
OPAL Training, State Library of Queensland, QLD

Creating community: the blog as a networking device
Constance Wiebrands
Curtin University of Technology Library and Information Services, WA

Financial accounting and library collections: the bottom line
Anne Horn
Deakin University Library, VIC
Janine Epps
Deakin University Library, VIC


Libraries Australia and Picture Australia: innovation in access at the National Library of Australia
Tony Boston
National Library of Australia, ACT

An evaluation of the information architectural qualities of Australian library websites
Dr Philip Hider
Charles Sturt University, NSW

Strategic procurement of library collections
Sharon Robertson
Brisbane City Council Library Services, QLD


Breaking the barriers: how libraries contribute to socially inclusive communities
Lorraine Seeger
Eastern Regional Libraries Corporation, VIC
Bernadine Nolen
Eastern Regional Libraries Corporation, VIC

The repository in the middle: The Sydney eScholarship Repository
Sten Christensen
Fisher Library, university of Sydney, NSW

Unlocking the garage: a web portal for car enthusiasts
Libby Fielding
State Library of Queensland, QLD

1.00pm Lunch in the Exhibition
Level 1, Pavilion 1
Sponsored by CCH Australia
1.40pm Keynote Speaker
Level 2, Auditorium
Jason Clarke from Minds at Work one of the most sought after creative thinkers in the country, working with some of the largest corporations and institutions in Australia - Has anyone seen the new era?
Chairman: Roxanne Missingham
2.30pm Announcement of the National Licensing Initiative
Level 2, Auditorium
Dr Warwick Cathro
2.45pm Presentation of Awards
Level 2, Auditorium
Sharr Medal - presented by Margaret Allen
Fellowship Awarded to Imogen Garner - presented by Dagmar Schmidmaier AM

Closing Remarks
Dagmar Schmidmaier AM, President ALIA

3.20pm 2008 Conference Promotion by Alice Springs
3.30pm Final Farewells and Cocktail Party
To round off the click06 conference, celebrate with a drink or two following the closing ceremony. Unwind and de-brief with your fellow delegates before the journey home or before you set off to explore Western Australia’s delightful tourist areas.
4.30pm Conference Closes

Post conference workshops
Post conference tours

Future perfect: will we have made it? Workforce planning issues in the library and information sector

While the impact of the shortage of doctors makes front page news and political parties promote rival strategies to increase the number of apprenticeships for the trades, to date little attention has been paid to the workforce challenges that the library and information profession will inevitably face in the next five to ten years. As business and governments focus ever more keenly on knowledge and innovation as key drivers for social and economic development, library managers must consider their ability to recruit, retain and develop the talented and committed workforce needed contribute to this dynamic information environment. While anecdotal evidence indicates that the aging workforce will lead to staff shortages, the problem is compounded by the changing skill set that librarians need in the Information Age. What are the predictions for potential labour shortages, what types of jobs will be available through the combined factors of the retirement of workers and the creation of new jobs, what is the skill set required for current and future jobs? Critically, the future of the library profession in Australia requires a more strategic approach to workforce planning and career development in an increasingly competitive employment market. This paper reports on a current project, coordinated by Queensland University of Technology in conjunction with ALIA, which aims to foster an awareness of the importance of workforce planning and to develop a collaborative framework for career long learning for the library profession, bringing together employers, educators, trainers and individual practitioners.

1001 Australian Nights: The importance of Librarians telling their own stories

The use of narrative story-telling as a tool for professional development has seen an upsurge in recent years across a number of professions This is particularly noticeable in the fields of education and medicine. Despite this increase in the use of narrative as a professional development tool, libraries and librarians have been relatively slow in adopting the use of story-telling as a tool for staff development. Although an important and well known element of story is the ability to explain our own unique place in the world, it can achieve much more than that. Story-telling has a growing reputation for the power to teach and develop in multiple ways. Sunwolf and Frey (2001) described the way interpersonal face-to-face story-telling helps both tellers and their audience construct self (Who am I?); weave community (Who are We?); order experiences; represent reality; make sense of lived-events; share knowledge; or influence the values, beliefs, and actions of one another. It is these aspects of story -telling t hat have seen it used successfully as a tool in the human resource management portfolio. This paper will provide practical examples of how we can apply the principles and practices of story-telling in the library workplace to address: personnel issues, improve productivity, and create and sustain organizational culture, whilst celebrating our own uniqueness. This paper draws on the author ’s 17 years’ library management experience in New Zealand and Australia, as well as 15 years experience as a professional story-teller.

Recognising the Assistants: Workplace Competency Training in Australia

I began teaching Cert III in 2002 and have become increasingly passionate about acknowledging the importance of library assistants and their skills. Library assistants are front line personnel - but often not given enough big picture information to do the best possible job of representing their institution. I believe that certified training and the recognition of library assistants’ skills not only makes them feel appreciated as an integral and important part of the whole organization, but also encourages staff to become interested enough in the library field to consider moving up the qualification ladder.

This paper will discuss the importance of library assistants and the reasons for considering the structured and ongoing training of this level of staff as imperative for a successful library service in all libraries - public academic and special. It will briefly examine the basic concepts of Competency Based Training, its introduction to the library industry and the advantages of using it in a workplace setting.

This will lead to an overview of the different ways of Competency Standards are being used in Australia at present – using examples from NSW, Queensland, Victoria and ACT.

The final discussion (centering around the Conference theme of ’meeting the challenges today’) will cover the increasing recognition, especially in USA, of Support Staff and how this might progress in Australia with the support of ALIA and professional librarians.

Not the “R” Word! Or A “breath of fresh air” – the impact of organisational restructure at Macquarie University Library

Macquarie University Library has undergone an extensive restructuring process in response to organisational design issues raised in a Library Review undertaken in 2004. A key component was to implement a new organisational structure for the Library that would allow it to be agile, resilient, informed, connected, successful and responsible.

The aim has been to better meet user needs and to make improved use of existing staffing resources including simplifying services for clients and encouraging them to become self-sufficient in finding, using and evaluating information.

The process has been demanding for all concerned, with staff finding the lengthy process, caused by efforts to ensure that all changes were well thought out and constructive, somewhat difficult. Outcomes to date, however, have demonstrated that there really can be positive restructures, which renew an organisation and add “a breath of fresh air”.

This paper provides a brief overview of the restructure purpose and process and discusses the rationale for the merger of Document Supply, Circulation and Reserve, three areas experiencing increased user expectations, rising statistics and major changes in technology, into a single department, Resource Access. The merger has been highly successful in achieving service improvement and job satisfaction including opportunities for staff to develop new skills that will assist in future-proofing their jobs.

This paper will highlight how the merger has assisted in enabling improved services, discuss the feedback from staff on new and changed roles and report on the positive feedback received from clients in response to new and improved services.

Tech Trials? Top’d and Turn’d

In 2000, unification of the University of Western Sydney (UWS) brought together three fiercely independent Libraries and thus three previously autonomous and disparate Technical Service operations united as a single unit to support the acquisition and processing of materials and the provision of Document Delivery services for UWS’ 7 geographically dispersed Libraries. Staffing numbers were reduced by 25%, staffing costs by 30% and all staff were co-located to a single centralised location. Amidst, and arising from, a turbulent background of change, cataloguing backlogs were eliminated, expenditure on materials increased by 14% in the first year following radical organisational change, with a concomitant increase in items ordered, received and processed. Processing time decreased by 70%. A massive shift of serials in print to electronic formats commenced. During this time, many Technical Services staff also undertook voluntary Service desk shifts – either Loans or Information Services as appropriate to the individual Higher Education Worker (HEW) level. How was this achieved? Staff were assigned to one of two multi-skilled teams, managing both serial and monographic materials, with each team member responsible, according to their HEW level, for the full range of ‘tech services’ tasks: ordering, receiving, cataloguing, end-processing and document delivery. This paper examines how it all came together – from team selection through training and development to a fully trained, multi-skilled staff. We then look at ourselves now - 6 years on. What lessons have we learnt? How have we sustained and enhanced throughput, multi-skilling and job satisfaction? Where will we go from here?

The impact of leadership on Library quality: Outcomes of a benchmarking project between ATN libraries

In the context of a university library, ‘quality management’ encompasses planning, service evaluation, performance monitoring, client satisfaction, continuous improvement and, most importantly, the relationships and interactions between these.

This paper will discuss the outcomes of a benchmarking project undertaken in 2005-2006 by the university Libraries of the Australian Technology Network (LATN)1, which aimed to establish best practice in quality management within LATN libraries.

While the project achieved its objective of establishing best practice, its outcomes have also highlighted that leadership plays a key role – from the conception to the embedding – in a library’s quality management program and ‘culture of quality’.

The influence of the library leader (university librarian or equivalent) is unequivocal in the effectiveness of a library’s quality management program. Outcomes of the LATN benchmarking project also illustrate that the leadership displayed by others is pivotal in the success of a library’s quality management program.

All Library staff (including a library’s assigned ‘quality officer’), supervisors and managers, and a university’s various central administration groups, can each display initiative and direction in the area of quality management and thereby influence – in various ways – the structure, success and future development of a library’s quality management program.

A careful blend of general and vocational education: is this still necessary in the education and training of the modern LIS professional?

This paper revisits the long-standing debate on the value of general education (also referred to as liberal education or liberal arts education) in information and library science (ILS) education and training. In doing so it reviews the literature to draw out the dominant discourses on the subject as well as refers to findings on the subject in a recent study of library and information services ( LIS) employers, employees and ILS educators in South Africa. Of particular significance to the debate, and perhaps an important contribution of this paper to the discourse on the subject, is the location of the debate in the context of a rapidly evolving field that has been almost completely dominated by digital technology and whose boundaries have become very blurred as emerging information markets have resulted in multiple disciplines laying claim to the business of information and knowledge management. A result has been the dominance of information science over library science as library schools throughout the world have rapidly transformed from library schools into schools for the information profession to take advantage of the emerging information markets and to remain viable in a highly competitive higher education environment. Based on rigorous discussion of issues relevant to the debate in the context outlined above, the paper draws conclusions and makes recommendations regarding whether a careful blending of general and vocational education i s still necessary in the education and training of the modern LIS professional.

The missing link? Alumni chapters and the professional development of librarians

The Information Professionals Alumni chapter was established in 2003 to maintain and re-establish links between librarianship and teacher-librarianship courses at the Queensland University of Technology's (QUT) library and information studies and teacher-librarianship courses and graduates out in the field. The focus of chapter events is three-fold – to host social events; to encourage networking; and to create opportunities for the professional development of past, present and future students. This paper discusses the formation of the Information Professionals chapter and its success in achieving these aims. The chapter has held many popular events, including hosting a number of international guest speakers, awarding a bursary for a member to attend the 2004 Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) conference and running the Evidence Based Librarianship mini-conference in conjunction with ALIA's Quorum group. All chapter events offer members and guests an opportunity to learn more about their profession and to develop their professional skills. This paper reports on the outcomes of a pilot study evaluating chapter members' participation in alumni events as part of their personal continuing professional development (CPD) activities. It discusses future strategies to enhance the role of the alumni chapter as a core part of members' CPD activities and outlines opportunities to further collaborate with ALIA's CPD programs. Alumni chapters offer a valuable opportunity to not only create stronger links librarianship educators, students, new graduates, experienced practitioners, but to strengthen the imperative for library and information professionals to engage in continuing professional development.

Changes to Research Funding in Australia: Impact of the Research Quality Framework on Libraries

In 2007 the Federal Government is introducing a new funding model for research in Australian higher education institutions, the Research Quality Framework (RQF). It will require university research groups to submit evidence of research quality and impact in order to receive funding. This paper will look at the likely impact of the RQF on libraries in Australia, based on experience gained through an RQF trial and from reports and research from the United Kingdom, where a similar funding model, the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), has been operating for a decade. When Curtin University participated in an RQF trial in 2005 library staff provided extensive support to academics seeking information about their publications. Workshops were delivered to demonstrate important sources of information and individual assistance was given as requested. Indicators of research impact, such as journal impact factors, and the importance of ‘quality’ publications, has resulted in heightened interest in publishing generally, and citation indexes in particular, among many academics. The UK’s RAE experience suggests a range of issues will emerge as the RQF model is implemented. For example, an increase in articles submitted for publication by academics has led to concerns about the quality and number of journals, and the effects on subscription prices. Research studies looking at citation index usage during the RAE, and examining the relationship between RAE ratings and academic library funding, illustrate how the RAE is being considered in the UK. The paper will conclude by bringing these issues together with suggestions for planning library services in the context of RQF implementation in Australia.

Librarians as Learning Advocates

Hume City Council has recognised that learning and education is a key determinant to economic and social wellbeing of individuals, families and communities. With this in mind, Council has taken a leadership role in the education needs within its municipality and established the Learning Community Department with libraries at the centre of the department. Council has built learning centres and developed a unique partnership with the community, the education sector, the community development and support sector, business and others, known as the Hume Global Learning Village (HGLV). The Council and the HGLV are building a Learning Community as a long-term strategy but already residents and workers in Hume are able to access a broader range of learning opportunities than ever before. This is as a result of better facilities, more information being made available, additional programs being brokered into the city and through the collaboration and partnerships. So how has the role of librarians changed with the creation of the HGLV? Library staff are developing the ‘Community Information and Learning Database’ that will be available on-line via the Internet to help connect the community with learning opportunities. Library staff have developed learning plans for their communities, in partnership with the community, in order to address the specific needs of the community’s. Library staff are involved in strategic program planning and facilitation. Library staff work as ‘Learning Advocates’ in the community.

Understanding digital inequality in the smart city: a psychological model

Brisbane has declared itself a ‘smart city’. But more and more Brisbane is also becoming a digitally divided city. This paper will outline a study aimed at exploring the psychological factors that contribute to digital inequality in community. The study is focused by the basic question: Are there internal forces causing members of community to choose not to integrate information and communication technology, such as the Internet, into their lives? The study uses the Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura (1986) to examine the psychology of the digital divide. This theory postulates that a person will act according to their perceived capabilities and the anticipated consequences of their actions. Participants in the study were members of the Brisbane community. Self-administered surveys were used for data collection. The surveys will gather data on areas including demographics, Internet usage and Internet self-efficacy. Participants were drawn from organisations, associations and community service points throughout Brisbane. This paper will build upon the preliminary work presented at the 2004 Biennial Conference by outlining the final results - a psychological model of digital divide within community. The conclusions and recommendations from the study will provide organisations involved in bridging digital inequality in community, such as public libraries, to better develop and tailor services and programs to more accurately and effectively narrow the gap between the information rich and information poor in society. Thus, allowing all members of community to have an equal chance of establishing and maintaining productive and personal and professional lives in this rapidly emerging digital age

From standalone to SWIFT: The story so far

Numerous issues face libraries today. Libraries of all types are challenged to provide greater information access and improved levels of service, while coping with the pace of technological change and ever-increasing budget pressure (Sun Microsystems, 2003).

Richardson and Hopkins’ (2004) research found that institutions are looking closely at their IT investments, and holding them up to the same scrutiny as other deliverables, i.e. looking for return on investment.

The world of public libraries has sped up over the past 10 years. Libraries and other information society stakeholders have realised that the only way to remain relevant in a networked information environment is to develop collaborative relationships and networked solutions to meet the pressure s of change brought about by the information society.

In 2001 a group of six Regional Library services asked the question “why don’t we acquire a LMS together?” Five of the six libraries, at the time, needed to review and acquire a new LMS for one of two reasons. They were either not happy with their current system due to supplier relationships or their current system was not going to be supported in the near future. As other library services in Victoria were also looking to acquire a LMS in the next 2 -5 years, the SWIFT Consortia was established.

The SWIFT initiative is a partnership between the Municipal Association of Victoria and Viclink to create a collaborative library management system for Victoria’s public libraries. SWIFT aims to deliver seamless state-wide access to Victoria ’s library resources and improved, equitable, and sustainable information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure.

This business case outlines the history of the project, what has been achieved to date and the challenges ahead.

Demand Balancing in Inter-Library Loan Networks

Even the largest libraries struggle to maintain a comprehensive journal collection. In 2003 Australian universities subscribed to over 1,300,000 journals of which of which 974,000 were in aggregate digital collections (Council of Australian University Libraries 2002). This represented over 273,000 new serial titles and over 150,000 cancellations (Council of Australian University Libraries, 2005). One emerging approach is for libraries to form consortia that take a joint subscription to digital resource collections. The consolidation of substantial collections with direct delivery has seen the gradual attrition of subscriptions to the traditional print format (Fox & Marchionini, 1998); (Weiderhold, 1995), but this cost saving is offset by the substantial increase in digital resources. The wealth of international research resources presents an even greater dilemma for small research institutions: how to effectively and economically access such a wide base of information resources within sometimes highly constrained budgets. The cost reductions obtained through aggregate subscriptions and consortia do not necessarily offset the net growth of fee -for-use published resources, and may have the consequence of centralizing subscriptions through a few large distributors – with the long –term collection risk that this centralization presents.

Small research libraries that cannot afford participation in national inter -library loan networks have formed fee -free networks of collaborating libraries that share their journal resources. While a fee -free Inter-Library Loan service offers obvious attractions to smaller participating libraries, alternative economic approaches are needed to avoid excessive demand on resource -rich members, and to avoid the phenomenon of "free - riders". This paper presents the resource distribution approaches that have been used to balance resource demand in GratisNet, an Australian network of 250+ health research libraries, where collaboration is fee -free but resource holdings among member are unequal. Dynamic ranking resource -based approaches are used to encourage the equitable distribution of resource load.

In the GratisNet network, search results for resources held by members of the GratisNet network are inversely ranked based on historical workload contribution. Participating libraries are requested to select from resources in the top -ranked selections presented, but compliance is voluntary. Transactions for 2002 , 2003 and 2004 are analysed in terms of actual compliance with ranking recommendations. Transactions for the period 2003 to 2005 are analysed to illustrate the ways in which a ranking -based approach to resource discovery improves workload distribution for participating members overall. Results from the GratisNet network illustrate the effectiveness of formal approaches to resource distribution in fee -free collaborative networks.

Digital Liberty after the Free Trade Agreement

Libraries serve a valuable role in Australian society as centers of knowledge and as sources for innovation. However, the extent to which subsequent creators greatly rely upon existing knowledge is not readily acknowledged in copyright theory. Instead, copyright is based upon the idea that an author exploiting his economic rights for a limited time acts as a spur to creativity. This traditional theory of copyright considers knowledge and innovation as being achieved in isolation. Consequently, it pushes to the margins of copyright policy those intermediaries, such as libraries who facilitate access to knowledge and innovation.

This focus on ownership, rather than on the relationship between knowledge and innovation, has closed off possible benefits from advances in digital technology. In addition, the response of many governments in the digital era has been to increase the level of protection for copyright owners. As a result Australian copyright law policy has trended towards creating barriers to knowledge.

In my paper I wish to examine the ways in which changes to Australian copyright law, enacted pursuant to the implementation of Australia’s obligations under the Australia -United States Free Trade Agreement, will impact upon the current libraries exceptions scheme in the . In particular, I wish to focus on Australia’s obligations with respect of technology protection measures which are due to commence in 2007. I will also examine the Fair Use inquiry and will evaluate whether the outcomes, or likely outcomes, of this inquiry will meet the needs of libraries and their users.

Copyright and New Content Models

Not too long ago content delivery models using digital rights management (DRM) technologies were still talked about in conceptual terms. However a variety of media and content providers now employ aspects of DRM to enable access for users while protecting the rights of copyright owners.

Copyright Agency Limited in partnership with authors, publishers and libraries have developed a number of content delivery models using DRM. In this session, we review the practical applications for digital copyright management and their impact on information professionals. We also review current and future DRM models.

CLIC @ CLICK06 : a consortial success story

“ CLIC go the rotas, CLIC, CLIC, CLIC,
Wide is our scope and requests move quick,
The users look around for docs to help them know,
And thank the consortium for making a service grow”.

This paper celebrates 5 years of successful collaboration by members of the CAVAL VDX Consortium (CLIC). CLIC comprises a group of 6 academic libraries using VDX software to manage busy interlibrary loan and document delivery operations that now also include cross campus services and services to external, remote and offshore students.

Library consortia provide many benefits for participants and users. A consortium offers the opportunity to provide innovative user services and for libraries to share costs, knowledge and expertise, resources and experiences. Yet a consortium may also potentially limit independence, enforce unhelpful bureaucratic processes and procedures and steer participants into unintended territory.

This paper discusses the value the CLIC consortium has offered participants and what compromises have been necessary to achieve success. These include formal processes such as configuration, training and helpdesk support, meetings, teleconferences and workshops; as well as range of informal factors including a combined commitment to share, the maintenance of good communication channels, effective problem solving and minimal bureaucratic barriers. The complex relationships between the consortium and institutions, and the impact of those relationships upon service provision and development within the institution are also explored.

CLIC members continue to work together to improve software implementation and therefore excellent service delivery to clients.

The Role of Partnership Libraries in NSW Health - The Centre for Rural and Remote Mental Health Experience

Libraries in NSW Health are becoming more involved in partnerships. As partnership libraries there are a set of unique challenges to be faced.

The Centre for Rural and Remote Mental Health Library for example is a joint venture between the NSW Department of Health, Greater Western Area Health Service and The University of Newcastle.

These libraries are usually small libraries similar to other health libraries, usually staffed by only one or two team members. They have similarities to health libraries and similarities to University libraries, but for all that they are still very unique.

This presentation looks at the Benefits and Challenges of these unique partnerships and attempts to assist others who may find themselves in similar situations.

The Australian Government Libraries Information Network (AGLIN): Our Role in ‘Connecting Government’

The Management Advisory Committee ( MAC) advises the Australian Government on matters relating to the management of the Australian Public Service ( APS). In 2004 it published Connecting Government: Whole of government responses to Australia’s priority challenges. This report describes whole of government approaches for the APS, emphasising coordination and collaboration. 'Whole-of-Government' co-ordination for the APS is intended to achieve effective outcomes for key government policies and services that cut across a number of portfolios, resulting in improved policy development, program delivery and support to clients. This paper outlines how the members of the Australian Government Libraries & Information Network (AGLIN) do and can further contribute to the work of government agencies particularly in regard to information service delivery, information management and information infrastructure in a whole of government way.

Kimberley Writers Festival

In 2005 the Kununurra Community Library hosted the Inaugural Kimberley Writers Festival (KWF), providing a significant literary event for the young people, adults and visitors of the East Kimberley.The library was selected by the WA state Literature Centre due to the success of its unique visiting author program where “meet the author” events over the past 4 years have attracted as many as 200 audience members, easily outstripping similar events in metropolitan venues. The Inaugural festival was a huge success with high attendance at all events involving 900 students and 500 community members and visitors to the area. In particular the collaboration between visiting authors and local writers on Indigenous issues was a highlight. A second KWF is planned for June this year. The continuation of the festival as an annual event in Kununurra supports the local community by providing artistic engagement, cultural development and helps reduce social isolation. The 2006 festival includes a leading fiction author, an Indigenous award winning author, two picture book illustrators, a young adult author, two songwriters who are a musical duo and a leading publisher. Local Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers and historians will feature on the opening evening. A literary lunch, literary Ord River cruise and celebrity chef literary dinner are all a development from the 2005 festival. The festival is a wonderful opportunity to promote libraries, literacy, literary activities and readership of Australian books. Kununurra Community Library has frequently been described by locals and visitors as the cultural hub of the town.

Listen To The People: The Hurricane Katrina Stories

This presentation will talk about the Hurricane related project “Listen to the People” Listen to the People will identify, gather, archive and index existing Katrina-experience documentation. The heart of this project are the intensive video interviews which focus on the New Orleans culture and the Katrina Diaster in the context of the past, the realities of the present and well as the visions, actions and choices for the future. Currently the Project Director, Kalamuya Salaam is working with MIT to provide a web presence as we continue to collect more interviews, archive footage and provide digital preservation for this monumental project. During Salaam’s residency at Cornell University, librarians IR and EN volunteered to oversee the acquisition of supplemental archives for Listen to the People. EN and IR are working on developing a business plan to digital preserve the interviews, develop partnerships with libraries and museums to create a space for additional interviews and create a media kit that all libraries will have access to this historical event.

Some things we will highlight in the talk

  • An insider look at the history of the “Listen to the People” project
  • The progress of the website streaming video and audio interviews
  • The DVDs of the video interviews available for public screening and as teaching tools
  • What’s next in terms of fundraising and potential grant support
  • Development of a business plan for digital preservation and oral history projects.

Waver Riders - Eastern Sydney Libraries Cooperative and Their HSC Support Programme

How do four library services in four small LGA (Local Government Areas) establish and maintain support programmes for students that are not competitive, co-dependent or conflictive. This session will show how Waverley, Woollahra, Randwick and City of Botany Bay Libraries, in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, formed a Cooperative in 2003 to present a HSC (Higher School Certificate) Programme, that would not only focus on the needs of students for subject and text based talks, but would be presented as a non-competitive programme of linked sessions.

This session will look at the initial set-up of the Cooperative, the establishment of the first programme, the first period of reflective discussion, growth of the programme and inherent problems and concerns of the member libraries.

The session will also demonstrate how small ideas, especially one for a HSC Expo, grew until the idea has been taken up by the State Library of New South Wales, as a sponsored programme in 2006.

A major issue that will be looked at is maintaining such a programme while planning for announced changes to HSC Curricula in Year 11, while maintaining sessions for students currently in Year 12., and the connected problems in planning and forecasting.

The session will conclude with general guidelines the Cooperative used to establish itself, the programme and further handy hints for libraries facing similar situations.

Clients Information Seeking Behaviour: An OPAC Transaction Log Analysis

A study about information seeking behaviour of students and staff using OPACs is presented. Based on about 6 Mio queries sent to the OPACs of the Freiburg University Library system from March to July 2004, this study was created by analysing the web server log. Initially the data acquisition procedure is described. The original web server log was expanded to provide additional fields. Relevant data sets were identified by the referrer field. Dispensable data fields were purged from the resulting data sets, others were transformed (e.g. to code various user groups) and stored into a data base. In the first part of the study the query structure was explored (e.g. the number of query terms and fields used as well as the usage of operaters, limits and truncations). Differences between user groups, effects of the interface layout on the queries and typical mis-entries could be identified. In the second part of the study another approach based on session analysis focused on the clients navigation within the result sets. The number of result pages viewed and the number of full records displayed was extracted from the data base. The summary shows how users coped with huge result sets depending on the number of hits. Finally the findings of the study are compared with those of recent OPAC studies and with those related to Internet search engine queries.

What is a library OPAC?

OPACs are now almost universally central to the operations of libraries of any size and represent the primary point of connection between library users and those information materials which the library owns or otherwise wishes to promote. This paper is based on recent developments in the philosophy of information and communication theory as well as on experience of OPAC design at Curtin University of Technology. It aims to revisit fundamental questions about the nature of library OPACs and the ways in which they function. This exercise can conveniently be pursued through examination of the multiple tensions implicit in any cataloguing or indexing system: the competing requirements of organisation and retrieval, description and classification. For an OPAC to be practicably usable the potential complexity of the information it contains must be reduced to a manageable level of simplicity. OPACs purport to allow complete retrieval, even though data structures and index definitions are not transparent. They necessarily impose a framework of retrieval which conceals information at the same time as it presents it and therefore to an extent they undermine the very concept of information literacy. In an online environment catalogues have been able easily to move beyond the scope of individual library collections and to incorporate an increasing range of non -traditional types of information, thus introducing further tensions between their roles as indexes and as information sources in their own right. A clear theoretically based understanding of these paradoxes is essential to ensuring optimal OPAC design.

Search Challenges as Assessment Tools: A Collaboration between the Library and the 21st Century Information Fluency Project in Illinois

How can database research skills be assessed in a way that appeals to students while delivering data to drive library instruction development?

The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA) is a residential high school with 600 students, grades 10-12. Librarians in the Information Resource Center (IRC) work with faculty to integrate research skills across the curriculum. A significant challenge for students when they begin a research project is choosing appropriate databases and efficiently navigating them. As librarians and educators our challenge is to engage students while imparting these skills.

In collaboration with the 21st Century Information Fluency Project (21CIF), the IRC is piloting a pair of performance assessment tools to provide a snapshot of students’ search skills before and after their library instruction session. These online, interactive tools center on an authentic search challenge in the JSTOR database. Questions derived from core Digital Information Fluency Competencies diagnose students’ abilities in formulating and grouping keywords and key concepts. Since searching the JSTOR database is based on literal matching skills, there are implications for transferring acquired skills to Internet search engines.

This paper documents the development, data and outcomes of the pilot assessment with 65 American History students, grade 10, from February to April 2006. Data gathered in the pre-assessment immediately informs our teaching with the goal of developing more effective instruction sessions – allocating time to the skills most needed. The post-assessment will evaluate students’ progress and instructional effectiveness, as well as preparing the way for further adaptive assessment tools.   

Architecture for implementing a sustainable electronic services delivery platform - case study

In line with the NSW and federal Government’s focus on Electronic Service Delivery, libraries today face the challenge to streamline, standardise and provide cost-effective access to their collections. To address this issue of Electronic Services Delivery, the State Library of NSW (SLNSW) launched a 3-4 year initiative called ‘’ in early 2005 to digitise and make available via the internet its unique and iconic collections. Early on in the initiative, SLNSW identified the design and implementation of a sustainable technology platform as one of the critical milestones for the overall success of the initiative. This paper focuses on the Information Technology aspect of the initiative and will describe the following key aspects of the initiative:

  • Architecture Framework Model for and how it aligns with State Library of NSW Target Enterprise Architecture Model
  • Key technical design and development challenges faced by SLNSW during the implementation of the sustainable Electronic Services Delivery platform
  • Insight into the Information Technology Infrastructure including hosting and deployment architecture.

As part of describing the architecture framework for, this paper will focus on two key enterprise content management technologies:

  • Digital Asset Management (DAM)
  • Web Content Management System(WCMS)

The DAM component along with the appropriate workflow technologies will help SLNSW automate and streamline its Original or Archival Collection Materials digitisation and cataloguing process. The WCMS component will help SLNSW to centralise and standardise its enterprise content publishing process to different delivery channels like, internet, intranet, wireless devices (e.g. imode mobile phones and PDAs). The overall purpose of technology platform is to function as the eService delivery ‘brand’ and ‘channel’, for the State Library of NSW as an organisation. The Library’s vision for ‘’ is to digitise key iconic items in its collection and bring it to the world via the internet.

Implementing Institutional Repositories in Regional Australia

Universities who have embarked on repository projects have all found that significant issues such as population of the repository, acquisition policies, strategies for community engagement and marketing are equally important to solving any technical issues. The RUBRIC (Regional Universities Building Research Infrastructure Collaboratively) project has been exploring where institutional repositories fit in the regional university landscape, assisting partners University of Southern Queensland, University of New England, University of the Sunshine Coast, University of Newcastle and Massey University with the process of establishing infrastructure to capture and provide regional, national and international exposure to the research output of their staff and students in a sustainable manner. RUBRIC has drawn on expertise developed in the first round of Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) funded activity, known as the FRODO projects (Federated Repositories of Online Digital Objects), to establish demonstrator repositories and pilot solutions in order to explore the issues and potential of institutional repositories in regional Australia. This paper provides an update on project activities in 2006 and a summary of regional issues emerging from this research. RUBRIC has been funded for 18 months from mid-2005 by DEST under the Systemic Infrastructure Initiative, together with 8 other projects known collectively as MERRI (Managed Environment for Research Repository Infrastructure).

AIATSIS Library: Innovations in Indigenous Library Services

The AIATSIS Library holds the most comprehensive collection of print materials on Australian Indigenous studies in the world. The Library provides services to communities, researchers etc, including Native Title and the Family History Unit assisting Link-Up Offices throughout Australia and the Stolen Generations people they serve. Our website, is rich in resources. The Institute’s catalogue, Mura®, is an important gateway and discovery tool for Indigenous studies. It includes journal articles and individual book chapters – and the Institute’s Audiovisual Archive’s collections. Many entries have valuable annotations. The AIATSIS Library is implementing innovative strategies in assisting remote clients and providing support to other libraries and their researchers. These include the availability of the AIATSIS Thesaurus as a cataloguing tool to assist libraries to more appropriately describe their collections. The AIATSIS Library is looking into geospatially browsing the catalogue as place is such an important concept within Indigenous knowledge. The Library has a three year digitisation program which will be making available materials such as Stolen Generations legislation, government protector’s reports and mission magazines. The AIATSIS Library has assisted in the reinvigoration of ATSILIRN (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library and In formation Research Network) and the promotion of their protocols guiding libraries, archives and information services in the provision of collections, services etc to Indigenous communities and collections. The AIATSIS Library has developed a strong network of libraries, archives and other record holding agencies and looks forward to working with CASL and ATSILIRN to providing better Indigenous collections and services in libraries throughout Australia. 

Breaking the Barriers: how libraries contribute to socially inclusive communities

Libraries contributing to socially inclusive communities The authors having undertaken their study tour of the United Kingdom, supported by a Barrett Reid Scholarship, will present a paper relevant to the conference themes:

  • Clients
  • Services to clients
  • Education for librarianship
  • Literacy
  • Library architecture and buildings

Public libraries today are faced with increasing challenges to engage their widely diverse and far ranging communities. Barriers to library use can include geographic, educational, socio-economic and cultural issues. Within the United Kingdom, several public libraries are developing policies and projects to overcome the diverse barriers contributing to social exclusion and lack of participation in library services and activities. This paper explores some of the diverse collaborative and co-located projects that are currently in use at a range of innovative locations within the United Kingdom. Projects which have incorporated elements that would appear to be unrelated to mainstream delivery of library services, but have contributed to creating stronger and more connected communities will be featured. The authors will analyse some of the social inclusion policies and strategies that have been developed by councils and libraries in the United Kingdom. The paper will also evaluate the effectiveness of the projects against the aims of achieving social inclusion and building strong communities. In view of the Libraries Building Communities Report released in Victoria in 2005, the paper will consider the adaptability and application to the Australian situation of several of the policies, strategies and projects investigated.

A big ask! Reference, time zones and the art of cooperation

The Australia-wide AskNow! virtual reference service was recognised in the recent United Nations Global e-Government Readiness Report as being an outstanding example of international best practice. The service is operated as a consortium which includes the National Library of Australia, Australian state and territory libraries and the national libraries of Singapore and New Zealand. It spans several time zones, is staffed by more than eighty librarians, is typically inundated with enquiries on an unlimited range of topics and is widely acknowledged as one of the busiest and most successful online reference services in the world.

It is moreover, the first and only Australian venture to involve reference librarians in a collaborative effort on such a scale. The key to its success is the achievement of a cooperative service arrangement between professional colleagues across three countries.

This paper addresses the benefits, challenges and constraints involved in the cooperative service model from the vantage point of both librarian and client. In a broader context it offers some accumulated wisdom about the operational complexities of virtual reference, cooperative ventures, international cooperation and the embracing of new technology.

To unionize or not to unionize the LIS sector: the debate now begins in South Africa

This paper is based on the findings of a 2005 doctoral study on the feasibility of unionizing library and information services (LIS) workers in the South African tertiary LIS sector. The purpose of the paper is to examine the factors that have influenced unionisation of the LIS sector at the international and national ( South Africa ) arenas. Such factors are crucial to the debate. The paper reviews relevant literature and provides an overview of the debate at the international level. The discussion is then reduced to the South African context and its progressive labour dispensation, which overtly promotes trade unionism. The study acknowledges that this dispensation has not significantly impacted on the LIS sector in its present state. A major obstruction towards unionization of the LIS sector is fragmentation, which has also played a significant role in negating the growth of trade unionism at the international level. A survey of employees within the tertiary LIS sector reveals that t he fragmentation of the South African LIS profession has impacted negatively on the status of the profession as a whole and on the membership size of the professional body (LIASA). The professional body is currently debating the issue of statutory status, which in terms of the South African legal dispensation, could mean the professional body acquiring trade union status. Finally, the paper presents possible scenarios, which may consolidate the South African LIS sector and LIS employee representation. Such scenarios may also present lessons for other national contexts.

Libraries without librarians are just a room full of books: educating Inmate Library Clerks, for now and for their future

Libraries in correctional centres are traditionally just repositories of old, second hand books, staffed (if at all) by any inmate who happens to be passing through, who likes a quiet, inside job. The NSW Department of Corrective Services is attempting to turn this situation around with a number of innovative strategies. The first step was to centralise the management and budget of all libraries (staff and inmate) under a single manager. This has enabled the supply of new, good quality library resources in a cost effective and coordinated manner. It also quarantines the library budget from being used to pay for other gaol related activities, as has happened in the past. The next step has been to provide properly qualified staff for these libraries, to ensure that these improved resources are used effectively. The budget is not adequate to employ outside staff for all the libraries (currently there are 40), and so inmates are recruited for the position of Inmate Library Clerk and offered the opportunity to complete a recognised training qualification in library science. They are maintained in that position for a specified time period and paid at a competitive rate, according to a scale, which is suitable for the role and related to the training component.

This paper will discuss the challenges and opportunities of implementing and operating this system and the resulting advantages of this system for the Inmate Library Clerk, other inmates and the staff in NSW correctional centres.  

Libraries Building communities - next steps, leaps and bounds for a groundbreaking project

The Libraries Building Communities ( LBC) reports were published in 2005. They are the result of a three-year research program that involved all 238 public library branches in Victoria and sought the views of nearly 10,000 Victorians, making it the most comprehensive research of its kind in Australia. The reports present clear new data on who is using public libraries, why, and what it is that they most value about them. Case studies of some of the most innovative ways in which Victorian public libraries contribute to their communities are presented.

The research also identifies groups that are not using public libraries, analyses the reasons, pinpoints the potential users and suggests strategies for increasing engagement. While highlighting the vital role that public libraries play in community strengthening and their potential to do more to advance government agendas in this area, the research also identifies the issues that must be addressed if public libraries are to realise this potential. The LBC research was auspiced by the Library Board of Victoria and the Victorian public library network. Since publication the reports have been used extensively by all those in Victoria whose job it is to plan and advocate for public libraries.

This paper reports on the next phase of this landmark project, including development and roll out during May 2006 of a new annual LBC online survey to gather data about library users, which could serve as a model for other states. It outlines the LBC program conducted from March to June 2006, which aimed to develop the advocacy skills of Victoria’s public library service managers. And it showcases some of the inspirational and innovative community capacity building projects that have been developed by Victorian public libraries and have received funding from the Library Board of Victoria.  

Fleas in the reading room and fiction on the shelves: meeting the readers and librarians of a nineteenth century public library

The Heyward Library, La Trobe University Bendigo is the custodian of the collection, borrowing records, minutes and suggestion book of the Sandhurst Mechanics Institute Library. These documents tell a story of the relationship between a library and its community. The lending records convey the important role people placed on the library for entertainment and education. The suggestion book, in which patrons entered requests for purchases, and suggestions for improvements, indicates an engaged borrowership, passionate about the library and its collection. The minute book of the library committee tells a tale of a community coming to grips with the role of a library in the town, and of an awakening of a sense of professionalism in the library staff.

Of the townsfolk who subscribed to the library, some are names of national importance, such as Sidney Myer, founder of Australia’s greatest retail organisation, and his Brother Elcon. Sir John Quick, whom the Australian dictionary of biography cites as one of the ‘founding fathers’ of the Constitution, was also a keen member. These, and many other lesser known, but equally interesting people will be introduced in the course of the paper.

The librarians are also an interesting and diverse group, indicative of the wide range of people, then and now, who are attracted to librarianship. The paper will seek to bring to life the readers and staff of the old library, and in doing so highlight the many similarities, and differences in the experiences of those who care about libraries, then and now.

Decimating Dewey: introducing a bookshop arrangement for shelving the non-fiction collection

Melvil Dewey’s decimal classification system was revolutionary in 1876 when all knowledge could be divided into ten main categories. In 2006 the world is a more complex place and so is our understanding of “all knowledge”. The main areas of interest to borrowers in a suburban public library service centre on the domestic and the personal: their health, their homes, their holidays, their money and their leisure. While Dewey was a satisfactory method of linking a catalogue record to an item on the shelf, it did not facilitate browsing in the areas of most interest to public library users. In 2005 Bayside Library Service stopped using Dewey numbers in the traditional sense to determine shelf order in its re-developed Beaumaris branch. The result was six new non-fiction collections which combine Dewey sequences within subject areas that are meaningful to a contemporary Australian audience. This paper will discuss how the new collections were determined, how they are presented in the Library and what the response from both the public and library staff has been. It will be a show and tell session based on practical collection issues facing public libraries.

Innovation in a Podshell: bringing information literacy into the world of podcasting

Podcasting is creating a buzz in the world of information and communication technologies. Since Adam Curry and Dave Winer released their iPodder software in September 2004, podcasting has been embraced by mainstream media such as ABC Radio and CNN News. Incorporating the use of Really Simple Syndication (RSS), podcasting involves the downloading of an audio programme to a computer, portable digital player such as an ipod or a mobile phone. Podcasting is being used by academics as an alternative to lectures in classrooms, in advertising and marketing and in the entertainment industry. Why not in libraries? Curtin University of Technology prides itself on its culture of innovation and willingness to investigate and adapt new technologies. The Curtin University Library and Information Service applies this innovative approach to our information service provision. Following the successful implementation of our SMS a Query service, we saw the potential for offering information literacy to our students through the use of podcasts. Our initial ‘Five tips on…’ series covers many aspects of information literacy such as Referencing, EndNote, and Library Databases. Released at regular intervals throughout the semester these podcasts are an accessible, portable and convenient mode of communication which enables our time-poor millennial students to download and play them at their own convenience. This paper examines the development of a pilot programme for using podcasting as a tool in the provision of information literacy in an academic library. We will examine the implementation process and the issues we encountered in developing our podcasting series.

The Teaching Librarian: ESL and the Academic Library

The line between librarian and teacher has become increasingly blurred, and never is this more apparent than in the academic library. A further layer of complexity is added when working with students who have English as a second language ( ESL). These students’ grasp of language and culture does not always compare to that of a ‘local’ student, and so we cannot make the same assumptions as to their pre-existing knowledge and abilities when engaging them in information literacy (IL) training. This paper discusses IL from an ESL perspective and as a form of English for Specific Purposes ( ESP). It offers a pedagogical (i.e., method- rather than content-based) approach to the provision of IL to international students and includes suggestions for best practice and examples taken from the author’s own experience.  

Where are we going and do I need luggage?: the future of reference services in Australian academic libraries

Earlier this year the author conducted a research project which aimed to define “reference services” within the context of the academic library and determine if the delivery and model of reference services in Australian academic libraries has changed in recent decades. The project used a survey, conducted under the auspices of the Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL), to gauge the model and delivery of reference services currently in place in Australian academic libraries. Within the context of shrinking numbers of library staff and a shifting student population which now incorporates significant numbers of mature age, part-time, international and postgraduate students, the project explores questions such as:

  • What are the services which comprise “reference services” in today’s academic library in Australia?
  • Are Australian academic libraries continuing to deliver the same reference services but using new technologies e.g. email, chat, text services?
  • Are libraries developing new reference services using the new technologies available?
  • Has the focus on the delivery of reference ser vices altered in recent decades i.e. from an emphasis on the Reference Desk to a greater involvement in information literacy and learning and teaching?
  • Is there a continuing place for the delivery of reference services in academic libraries of the 21st century?

The author will use results of the survey to indicate trends which will assist library managers in planning reference services of the future and to assist recruitment activities, highlighting the skills and knowledge required by reference librarians in the 21st century library.

SMS Reference - Keeping up with your clients!

In an attempt to meet evolving client needs, Southbank Library needed to become more flexible in the way services were delivered. Providing an SMS service for students to text the library for information, offered a readily accessible alternative to email. This also gave the library the opportunity to access students via a familiar accessible service. SMS a Librarian has become part of the Southbank Institute Library ‘Ask a Librarian’ service, which includes email, phone and live chat access for students and staff. By adding this new technology to our reference services, users are now able to send questions and receive answers from Southbank Librarians by using the text messaging facility on their mobile telephones. SMS has become a popular way of communicating particularly among the young, however, it is important that individual libraries evaluate the appropriateness of this technology for their clientele. For Southbank library it was a suitable technology as so many of our students use text messaging. We felt that our large number of International students would benefit from this service. Often students with English as a second language feel more comfortable texting a question then using more conventional methods of communication. The success of the SMS reference service at Southbank Institute library revolves round three key points: SMS meets our clients’ needs instantly; SMS is a relevant form of communication for students; and lastly the ease of providing SMS technology.

Print v electronic reference sources: Implications of an Australian study

Reference is a major function for libraries, increasingly delivered through access to online and virtual services and information resources, both free and fee-based. As a result of such access, libraries worldwide are reporting significant changes in the nature of reference services, transactions and collections that reflect broader shifts in the relationship between users and libraries. A particular issue facing many reference services is the need to establish an optimal balance between print and electronic sources.

This paper explores the evolving place of Australian reference services and collections, with a particular emphasis on the balance between print and electronic sources. It outlines a case study which reports on the results of a study of reference activity conducted at the Northern Territory Library. The audit of more than 500 reference transactions mapped the usage of the in-house reference collections (print and electronic), the general collections and the Internet.

From the results of this study, coupled with data gathered from an extensive review of international literature, it is possible to identify trends and issues influencing Australian reference services and collections. The analysis of the results will focus on the competing use and value of print and electronic sources. This will include an assessment of issues associated with maximising the use of all reference resources, such as integration of print and electronic; staff training and development; promotion of reference services and user education.

Standards for RFID systems in Australian Libraries – What does it all mean and why should you care?

The subject of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) standards is not well understood within the Australian library community. It is often not clear to which standard a particular vendor’s offering complies or even whether it complies. While the desirability of standards within the library RFID space is recognised, there exists significant misunderstanding regarding what benefit current standards actually confer. Unfortunately, this misunderstanding leads many library managers to believe that the current standards allow interoperability between systems which is actually not the case. During 2005 a working group (chaired by the author) was established under the auspices of Standards Australia to determine what would constitute an appropriate standard for an RFID data model for Australian libraries. The working group is composed of senior library professionals from Victoria, NSW, & Queensland, together with representatives from the publishing and RFID vendor communities. At the outset, the working group identified that one of its key functions would be to act as a resource within Australian libraries, where an acknowledged lack of understanding exists with regard to the critical issues involved. This paper will provide an update on the activities of the working group and convey the current status of Standards within the RFID space. The emphasis will be on imparting an understanding of the gap between the actual and the perceived benefits. The paper will also raise the awareness of the library community to the work of the standards group and, in so doing, provide a contact point for further discussion and support.

RFID & Privacy within Libraries – Myths, Misconceptions and The Future

No subject has so polarised libraries in recent years as the potential risk to personal privacy brought about by the introduction of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Particularly in the United States of America has the debate become fierce with lobby groups attempting to stop libraries migrating to this new technology.

It can be extremely difficult for Australian libraries to accurately gauge the risks to the privacy of their borrowers in the context of rhetoric which at times borders on the hysterical and is often misinformed. The RFID application space is vast and spans multiple technology platforms and standards of which libraries are but a small part. Observations made regarding one application are not necessarily valid in another application. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the perceived threats, to probe their technical feasibility and to present a clear picture of what may and may not be done by libraries to mitigate the risk that actually exists. The current RFID standards are also examined in the context of privacy and their limitations are weighed. The paper concludes by exploring what could be done in the future by commercial RFID vendors to maintain compatibility with standards while maximising the data security and therefore borrower privacy of their systems.

Emerging Technologies Changing Our Service Delivery Models

Emerging technologies provide librarians with a unique opportunity to substantially enhance user centred services and to facilitate and promote collaboration between libraries and their clients. This presentation explores the range of free and inexpensive technologies that are available and have been simply implemented with practical and immediate benefits both for library staff and clients. It will demonstrate positive examples of integrating technologies such as blogs, wikis, RSS aggregators, web conferencing, podcasting, instant messaging into library services and programs.

The presentation will also report the take up of these technologies by public libraries nationally and internationally and examine Australian public library use and promotion of these services to their clients. Questions around the level of use or non use by public libraries will be explored.

These technologies have increased clients’ interaction with and access to library services and collections. By providing information in various formats these technologies are meeting client’s various and individual requirements, and reflect the increasing demand of services in virtual environments. A public library case study will examine staff buy-in and involvement in the development of new services and explore the difference these emerging technologies can make to our clients.

Libraries Australia and PictureAustralia: Innovation in access at the National Library of Australia

The National Library of Australia has coordinated a national bibliographic databases and resource sharing service for Australian libraries since 1981. Over the last two years, this service has been redeveloped and branded as Libraries Australia. In February 2006 a free version of the Libraries Australia Search service was released to increase access to the collections of Australian libraries. The service provides simple 'google-like' searching and extended getting options: online, via loans or copies from Australian libraries, or via online booksellers. Through this service anyone with an Internet connection can find out about 40 million items held by 800 Australian libraries. Item descriptions have also been exposed to Internet search engines such as Google and Yahoo! So that content appears in web search results.

The second part of this paper describes a pilot project involving collaboration between the National Library and Yahoo!, owner of the FlickR photo sharing service. The aim of the project was to increase the number of contemporary images of Australian people, places and events in the National Library’s PictureAustralia service. This was achieved by engaging with the FlickR online community and encouraging individuals to upload photos of Australia to Metadata describing these images, including titles, descriptions and FlickR tags, are harvested into the PictureAustralia service on a weekly basis. This innovative project for the first time opens up contribution to this service to individuals and complements the existing one million, largely historical, images in PictureAustralia from Australian and overseas cultural agencies.

Collaboration and communication via wiki: the experience of curtin university library and information service

The idea behind the wiki, a website that can be created and edited by many different users, can sometimes be difficult to come to terms with. Unlike traditional content management and web authoring systems, the wiki is “egalitarian”, enabling all users to have access to its writing and publishing features. Within the organisational context, the wiki is emerging as one of the more flexible, dynamic and simple yet powerful online tools available for knowledge sharing and collaboration. Its version control and change tracking capabilities can also facilitate efficient record keeping and promote transparency.

This paper describes Curtin University Library’s experience of designing, developing and implementing a wiki for enhancing communication within and across teams, as well as for collaborating on cross-sectional projects. The challenges of training library staff in using this new technology are discussed. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of wiki technology, as experienced in an academic library environment, are also examined.

Creating community: the blog as a networking device

The challenges of the so-called Information Age are having an interesting and often challenging impact on librarianship as a profession. Librarians are constantly called on to embrace change, to evolve and to adopt new technologies and practices, to better meet the needs of our varied clientele.

The author argues that a strong sense of professional identity and community is vital for librarians if we are to meet these challenges. The blog, one of the new “conversational technologies” that has arisen in recent years, has a part to play in creating and supporting our professional communities.

This paper argues that, despite having been criticised for being over-indulgent, frivolous, a waste of time, and even “rubbish”, the blog has a definite role to play in many aspects of professional communication and interaction, by encouraging debate and collaboration. Where in recent years the email discussion list has been an essential tool in fostering such communication and collaboration, its effectiveness is beginning to be questioned, as email suffers from overuse and the onslaught of spam. As well, the role the blog can play in enabling conversation with library clientele is currently under-realised.  

An Evaluation of the Information Architectural Qualities of Australian Library Websites

Various instruments have been employed to evaluate the effectiveness of library websites over the past decade, but more sophisticated assessment is now possible following the development of the Information Architecture (IA) profession and its guidelines, derived from a substantial body of usability research. At the heart of good IA practice are principles governing the organisation of information, with which librarians should be amply conversant. Indeed, librarians should provide leadership in this area, not least through the design and management of their own websites and digital libraries.

To investigate the extent to which websites of Australian libraries presently adhere to established IA guidelines, a heuristic evaluation was carried out on a total of thirty websites, representing twenty Australian libraries of various types and size, and ten Australian retailers. The evaluation was based on two checklists, one established by the leading information architect, Jakob Nielsen, and one published by the Australian Government Information Management Office.

The thirty websites were evaluated by the same two assessors independently, according to a set of twenty heuristics derived from the two checklists. A rating between 1 and 5 was assigned for each heuristic, based on a scale adapted from Nielsen’s severity rating system. The ratings for the library and retail websites were compared, and particular IA strengths and weaknesses of the library websites identified.  

A Statewide Approach to Auditing collections and Developing a 2020 Blueprint for Public Libraries in Victoria

The collection lies at the heart of every public library service and collectively they are a very significant community asset. Victoria’s 240 branch libraries and 30 or so mobile libraries hold approximately 9 million items in their collections. Nearly $24million is expended each year on new materials for these collections and associated processing costs.

This paper reports on the first ever statewide audit (or ‘strategic review’) of public library collections in Victoria, conducted between February and April 2006. It responds to the CLICK06 theme of Leadership in relation to Collections and Services to Clients.

The paper covers why and how the audit was carried out and the main findings and recommendations. There is a special emphasis on management practice and the levels of investment required to ensure that Victoria’s public library collections, at both the local and statewide level, are brought up to an established standard and are appropriately renewed.

The audit findings and recommendations were an essential component in the development of a blueprint for Victoria’s public libraries, with a strong focus on content and access issues. The blueprint is an important strategic document for the public library network, providing a vision for service development through to 2020 along with practical strategies to achieve the vision and details of specific initiatives to be implemented over the next two years.

The blueprint and the audit reports, for both individual library services and the state as a whole, are important new tools for public libraries to use in the planning of their services and in advocating for their services to government and other stakeholders at all levels.

Financial accounting and library collections: the bottom line

The valuation and depreciation of library collections is an increasing challenge in the context of financial accounting requirements. The depreciation implications of major collection management strategies have become of increasing concern to Deakin University library in regard to accrual accounting reporting procedures. Changes to library collections, such as the transition to online journals, are moving the financial value of library collections from capital to operating budgets. Major collection management projects such as weeding print assets can have unexpected implications for depreciation and library budgets. Gratis publication acquisitions can also significantly affect valuation and depreciation. Many other libraries are facing similar challenges and this paper will incorporate a range of experiences and practices. There appears to be little consistency across libraries in how collections are valued and accounting procedures can differ greatly across institutions. The seemingly arbitrary and often questionable nature of financial policies in relation to library collections can create problems for libraries when used to inform decision making and budgets. Libraries increasingly need to work in partnership with financial managers to ensure the financial reporting requirements do not result in adverse implications for collections and budgets and that the capacity of the library to meet its strategic objectives is not impeded. This paper explores the issues and challenges facing many libraries and outlines some strategies to assist library managers in dealing with this financial conundrum.

Strategic procurement of library collections

Over the last year, Brisbane City Council has implemented Strategic Procurement processes across Council, which has seen dramatic improvements and savings in how Council purchases goods and services. In late 2005, research conducted for the Strategic Procurement project dealing with the purchase of ‘Books, Periodicals & Maps’ confirmed that outsourced acquisitions and technical services is the most effective method of procuring library collections.

A key recommendation was for library services to work together with library suppliers towards cataloguing and processing, rather than each library service insist on customisation. This paper will discuss the basics of Outsourcing in libraries and how Strategic Procurement adds further value to the whole process. In 1999, Brisbane City Council Library Services outsourced its acquisitions and technical services, allowing these staff to move into customer focussed positions in the branches. It also introduced a more strategic management of Brisbane acquisitions and collections which continues to be fine-tuned to meet the needs of Brisbane customers.

Outsourcing of technical services’ functions such as cataloguing and processing is becoming more commonplace in libraries across Australia, with dozens of libraries now taking advantage of these services from library suppliers. In 2005, Yarra Plenty Regional Library Service became the first Victorian library to fully outsource its acquisitions and technical services, which came under criticism from many Victorian librarians. Brisbane and Yarra Plenty are currently working together to adopt a standard AACR2 Level 2 catalogue record, to be created by library suppliers with shared costs between the partner libraries.  

Unlocking the garage: A web portal for car enthusiasts

In sheds, under houses and in back paddocks across Australia, elderly automobile bodies sit dejectedly waiting for dedicated car enthusiasts to restore them to their former glory. And to judge by the number of car clubs around the nation, classic car owners are out there in their thousands - needing wiring diagrams, needing brake specifications - and needing help from librarians.

Intending classic car restorers come to the library fired by hope and optimism, only to meet with disappointment when a standard repair manual cannot be located. Over many years the State Library of Queensland has built up a substantial collection of potentially useful works relating to vehicles manufactured between 1900 and 1970. Until recently, however, this much sought after information, secreted away in bland looking compendium manuals with unrevealing titles, was a secret known only to the initiated few.

Last year the Library took the opportunity to bring together the ten year indexing effort of two remarkable volunteers, a fascinating collection of historically significant photographs and a little technical innovation to develop the popular Garage web portal. This paper considers the opportunities inherent in opening up high demand areas in library collections, the philosophy of sharing expertise in the community with the library’s wider public and the technical challenges involved in converting a set of unrealised assets into a useful, integrated online resource.

The repository in the middle: The Sydney eScholarship Repository

The Sydney eScholarship Repository forms a key part the University of Sydney Library’s overall strategic “Sydney eScholarship” initiative, the Library’s move into new and relevant territory. The repository stands on its own as a digital archive and content management service that the Library offers to the University, however the repository platform, DSpace, provides a vital piece of infrastructure to our overall Sydney eScholarship initiative which includes: Sydney Digital Library (SETIS digital collections, Sydney Digital Theses) and Sydney University Publishing (Sydney University Press, other imprints digital / print services).

Sydney eScholarship is involved in some exciting and challenging digitisation activities which included a complex publication called the Songs, dreaming, and ghosts : the Wangga of North Australiathat utilises image, text and audio and will use the repository as a digital archiving and storage mechanism. It will utilise TEI XML encoding, Cocoon and XLST to handle transformations and possibly METS to mange the overall work. The repository will also assist the University in the management of its research quantum and we will be digitally archiving the DEST required research output. To this end we are exploring a number of tools that can be integrated into the deposit process giving an extra dimension to the archiving process that of getting sustainable digital formats into the repository at the beginning.

This paper sets out how the University of Sydney Library has and is using its repository platform over and above a standard institution repository implementation. It will also provide some incite as to how other libraries and institutions might do this. The paper will also look into the involvement and vital role our Liaison Librarians play in helping to market the repository, establish communities and initiate projects that utilise the DSpace platform.


Congress West | PO Box 1248 | West Perth WA 6872
Phone: +61 8 9322 6906 | Fax: +61 8 9322 1734 |

Congress West is re-locating to Nedlands. This will happen on Friday 18 August.  There will be some disruption to telecommunications and internet registrations between Wednesday 16 and Monday 21 August. Telephone calls diverted to message back will be responded to by Tuesday 22 August. For urgent matters, please call Katie Clarke on 0418 915 979.
Mailing address @ PO Box 1248 West Perth 6872 will remain the same.  New street address will be 12 Leura Street Nedlands.  New telephone and fax numbers are still to be advised, though the current numbers at West Perth will be re-directed to Nedlands.

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